Course Offered


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Term wise subjects and credit hours for B. E. (AGR).

Course Code
Course Title
Credit Hrs
First Term
LWM-313 Surveying and Leveling 3(2-1)
Second Term
LWM -314 Farm Irrigation System 3(2-1)
Fourth Term
LWM -414 Irrigation Scheduling 3(2-1)
Fifth Term
LWM -501 Soil Physics 3(2-1)
Sixth Term
LWM -508 Saline Sodic and waterlogged soil 3(2-1)
Seventh Term
LWM -607 Soil and water Conservation Engineering 3(2-1)
Eighth Term
LWM -606 Water Management Practices 3(2-1)

Term wise subjects and credit hours for M. E. (AGR).

Course Code
Course Title
Credit Hrs
First Term
LWM -705 Soil Water Plant Relationship 3(3-0)
Second Term
LWM -706 
Land and Water Management

Term wise subjects and credit hours for Ph.D

Course Code
Course Title
Credit Hrs
First Term
LWM -717 Water logging and Salinity Control 3(3-0)
Second Term
LWM -718
Ground Water Modeling




Surveying History and development of surveying and of the instruments used, precision and accuracy, Theory, construction and uses of chains, steel bands, optical square, box sextant, clinometers.

Chain Surveying: Principles, ranging and chaining of survey lines, field Work and plotting of chain survey.

Compass Surveying. Types of compasses, their construction, Working and uses, bearings, local attraction, compass traversing, traverse adjustment and plotting.

Plane-table Surveying. Plane table surveying methods, two point problem and three-point problem.

Leveling. Leveling, instruments, their Working and uses, reduction of levels, classification of leveling.

Contour Surveying. Methods of contouring, characteristics of contour lines, uses of contour, interpolation of contour, setting grade stakes, setting out grades for sewers, plotting of contour maps.

Theodolite Construction, care and adjustment, reading horizontal and vertical angles.

Areas and Volumes. Areas and volumes of regular and irregular figures, the mid ordinate, average ordinate, Trapezoidal and Prismoidal`s rules for areas and volumes, Borrow pits, plan meter and its uses.

Tacheometrical Surveying: Methods of tachemetrical surveying, field work and computations.


Measurement of distance, chaining on sloppy ground, chaining through obstacles, use of equipment for setting out right angles, study and field use of prismatic and surveyors compass, plane table transits.
Levels, alidade, theodolite and teachnometer, field problems in witch these instruments are used.

Books Recommended:

1. Brinker, A. C. and W. C. Taylor. 1988. Elementary Surveying. International Test Book Co., Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

2. Ramsay, J. E. and Wilson. 1977 land Surveying. Macdonald and Evans Ltd. Estover, Plymouth PL 6 7 PZ.

3. Jack, B. E. 1992. Surveying. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

4. Clark, D. 1989 plane and Geodetic Surveying for Engineers Vol-1 Constable and Company Ltd. England.

5. Davis, R. E. and F. S Foote. 1983. Surveying. Theory and practice. McGraw Hill Book Company, inc, New York.

6. Ramsay, J .P. W. 1990. Land Surveying. McDonald and Evans Ltd. Estovers, Plymouth U. K


  LWM -314


Surface irrigation Systems. Types and characteristics of different surface irrigation methods and systems (border, basin, furrow), phases of surface irrigation, effectiveness of surface irrigation, introduction to design of surface irrigation systems, surge irrigation cablegation.

Irrigation Application: Water potential and moisture measurements, estimation of irrigation, irrigation scheduling, allowable depletion, irrigation amount and frequency, irrigation efficiency, irrigation water and crop yield interaction.

Sub irrigation: Advantages and disadvantages of sub-irrigation, types of sub-irrigation, use of sub-irrigation in agriculture.

Sprinkler irrigation Systems: Types, advantages and disadvantages, components of sprinkler systems, design and layout of sprinkler systems, control of microclimate by sprinkler irrigation.

Drip/Trickle irrigation System: Advantages and disadvantages, problems associated with drip irrigation systems, components, design and layout of drip irrigation system.

Evaluation of irrigation Systems: Need for irrigation evaluation parameters conveyance, application and distribution efficiencies, coefficient of uniformity, storage and irrigation system efficiency, improvements in irrigation systems effectiveness.


Design and layout of selected irrigation systems. Field evaluation of an irrigation system. Evaluation of an irrigation system by using computer software.

Books Recommended:

1. Jensen, M. E.1981 Design and Operation of Farm irrigation systems. American Society of Agriculture Engineers Monograph.
2. Walker, W.R.; and G. V. Skogerboe, 1987 Surface irrigation: Theory and practices. Prentice Hall, inc, Englewood Cliffs, New jersey, USA.
3. Merriam, J. L., 1988 irrigation system Evaluation and improvement. Blake printing & publ, Co., San luis Obispo, G. A. U.S.A.
4. Linsley, R. K., J. B. Franzini and D. L Freyberg. 1992 Water Resources Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York

LWM -414


Irrigation scheduling definition and concept, factors to be considered in irrigation scheduling, types of irrigation scheduling, application of irrigation scheduling. Soil and soil water content, types of soil water, soil and water characteristic curve, Methods of determining crop water requirements.

Consumptive use, actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, crop coefficients. Methods of determining evapotranspiration.

Frequency and Interval of Irrigation, Factors affecting frequency of irrigation, Design irrigation frequency, depth of irrigation, factors affecting depth of irrigation

Determining moisture contents at field capacity and wilting points by gravimetric method. Estimating reference evapo-transpiration. Preparing an irrigation schedule of a crop for the growing season. Use of Computer model for calculation of the water requirements for different crops

Books Recommended:

1. Dilip K. M. 2004. Irrigation Water Management Principles and Practices. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. New Delhi.
2. FAO 1977 Crop water requirements (revised ed.) FAO irrigation and drainage paper 24.
3. Rafique M. C. 2005. A text book of irrigation and drainage practices for agriculture. Study Aid Project. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

LWM -501

Introduction: Definition of soil and its important for plant growth. Composition and formation of soils. Soil classification & Horizons. Soil colour and temperature.

Soil physical properties: texture and structure, water content, bulk density, particle density, porosity, void ratio, saturation capacity.

Soil water Potential: components of total potential, measurements of potential components, capillary tube, tensiometer, piezometer tube.

Saturated water flow: Darcy’s law, measurement of the saturated hydraulic conductivity in the lab and field.

Unsaturated water flow: retention curve and hydraulic conductivity function, measurement of retention curve, Richards equation, infiltration, evaporation, non-equilibrium/preferential flow.

Soil hydraulic parameters their measurements: VGM parameters and analytical models RETC, ROSETTA for measurement of hydraulic parameters. Introduction of numerical models (HYDRUS) for modeling of water flow in soil.

Determination of soil texture, soil structure, soil water content, soil bulk density, soil particle density, void ratio, porosity. Determination of saturated and unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity. Determination of water retention curve. Laboratory practices with Hydrus-1D model.

Books Recommended

1. Baver, L.D. 1956. Soil Physics. John Wiley and Sons Inch., New York; Champman and hall, Limited, London.
2. Buckman, H.O. and Brady, N.C. 1961. The Nature and Properties of Soils. The macmillan and Co., New York.
3. Hillel, D. 1982. Introduction to soil physics. Harcount Brace Javanoich, New York.

LWM -508


Origin and nature of saline, alkali and water-logged Soils; Colloidal complex of Soil; Structure and properties of silicate Clays; Exchangeable Bases and Cation Exchange in soil; soil reaction; solute movement of water in soil pH value of Soil and its significance; Study of salt affected soil: Their classification, reclamation and management. Leaching and leaching requirement. Quality of irrigation water and its effect on Soil properties; plant growth; Methods of reclamation and management of saline and water-logged Soils. Irrigation water quality effects on soil environment.


Measurement of infiltration rate of saline and water-logged Soils; Movement of solutes: preparation of Soil paste and Soil saturation extract. Chemical analysis of pH, CEC, SAR, ESP, and Cations and Anions. Quality of irrigation water; Water table measurements.

Books Recommended:

1. Bresler, E, B. L. McNeal and D. L. Carter. 1982 Saline and Sodic Soils, Principles-Dynamics-Modeling. Springer-Verlag, New York.
2. Tanji, K.K. 1990. Agricultural salinity assessment and management. ASCE No. 71, New York, USA.
3. Gupta, I. C. 1990. Use of saline water in Agriculture. Oxford and IBH pub. Co, New Delhi, India.
4. U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Handbook, No. 60 USDA. US. Govt. print. Office Washington, DC, U.S.A.

LWM -607


Introduction: land and water resources of Pakistan, soil and water management problems. Importance of soil and water conservation soil and water conservation practices in Pakistan.

Precipitation: Rainfall characteristics related to erosion. Analysis of precipitation data. Effective precipitation.

Watershed: Definition, watershed characteristics. Factors affecting infiltration and runoff, importance of infiltration in soil and water conservation.

Water Erosion and control practices: Factors affecting erosion by water, types of water erosion, mechanics of erosion, forms of water erosion, soil loss equation and its components, soil loss estimation and erosion control practices.

Wind Erosion and Control practices: The mechanics of detachment, transport and deposition of soil or practical, estimation of soil loss by wind erosion control practices.

Vegetated Waterways: Use, design and maintenance of vegetated waterways. Terracing, functions, classifications, design, location and maintenance of terrace.

Conservation Structures: Types, functional requirements and limitations of conservation structures.

Embankments and Farm ponds: Types, foundation requirements and design of earth embankments, water harvesting concepts, site selection and design of farm ponds.


Measurements of infiltration rate in field by infiltrometer. Measurements of soil loss from splash erosion by rainfall simulator. Measurements of runoff and runoff coefficient of filed plots. Measurements of soil loss under different rainfall intensities. Demonstration of moisture conservation techniques. Field visit to soil and water conservation sites.

Books Recommended:

1. Schwab, G. O., R. K., Fervert, T.W., Edminister, and K.K., Barens. 1993. Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. John Wiley & Sons New York.
2. Frederic R. Troch. 1991 Soil and water Conservation. Printice Hall, Englewood Cliff. New jersey, USA.
3. Hundson, N. 1976. Soil Conservation. BT Batsford Limited. Morga R.P.C. Linsely, R.K. and F. Joseph. 1996 Water Resources Engineering. McGraw Hill.

LWM -606


Soil Water plant Relationships: Soil moisture characteristics filed capacity, wilting point, total available water, readily available water, infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, irrigation scheduling.

Crop Water Requirements: Evapo-transpiration, reference potential evapo-transpiration, crop coefficients, actual evapo-transpiration, effective rainfall. Net irrigation requirements , leaching requirements and gross irrigation requirements.

Land Leveling: importance of land leveling in water management, topographic survey, system layout, optimizing cuts and fills, land leveling equipment, laser land leveling.

Discharge Measurement: Units of measurement, equipment and methods of measurement, interpretation of discharge data, water losses.

Watercourse Design and Maintenance: Hydraulics of open channel flow, flow profiles, design of watercourse for a command, watercourse structures, cleaning and maintenance of watercourses.

Watercourse Construction: construction requirements and procedure, material for construction equipment and methods, cost of watercourse lining and improvement.


Determination of seepage losses. Dead Storage losses. Determination of field capacity, available water and wilting point. Design and cost estimation of a watercourse for a given command area. Field visit of lined and earthen water courses. Land leveling and preparation of a contour map.

Books Recommended:

4. FAO 1977 Crop water requirements (revised ed.) FAO irrigation and drainage paper 24.
5. On Farm Water Management Field Manuals, Vol. 1-4.
6. Jensen, M. E, 1981, Design and Operation of Farm irrigation System. ASAE, Monograph, USA

2. M. E. Courses:

LWM -705


Soil water constants and their determinations, soil water movement: Hydraulic head and fluid potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity, unsaturated flow and water table, steady state and transient flow Soil water interactions in relation to root and shoot growth. Soil water interaction in relation to soil properties, environmental considerations, water availability to plants, soil water uptake by plants. Nutrient uptake: mass flow, diffusion, root effects. Moisture extraction by root systems and the concurrent movement of water and salt in the soil profile. Upward flow in the presence of water table.

Soil-Plant- Atmospheres (SPA) system: equation of mass balance and flow equations in one and two dimensions, empirical equations. Practical application of soil/plant/water principles in agronomy and field engineering.

Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth: soil compaction, mechanical and hydraulic properties of compacted soil, influence of compacted Zone to upward flux, infiltration and root penetration. Tillage of compacted soil and plant growth.

Books Recommended:

1. Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Editors B.A. Stewart and R. Nielsen. 1990. SSSA, CSSA and ASA.
2. Crop Water Requirements, Irrigation and Drainage paper 24, FAO: Rome, Italy.

LWM -706


Basic Management Concept. Scope and objectives of watercourse improvement, advantages of lining, Types of lining, estimated benefits of watercourse lining. Seepage, factors affecting seepage, methods of determining seepage rate from earthen canals/watercourses

Design procedure for watercourse lining, survey of earthen watercourse, hydraulics used in watercourse design, Design criteria, Material and cost estimation, watercourse control structures, construction, operation, cleaning and maintenance of watercourses.

Importance of land preparations, Benefits of land leveling, Economics of land leveling, Options for land leveling. Small-scale land leveling, Traditional engineering approach, precision land leveling, Laser land leveling, Laser-controlled land leveling systems Benefits of laser leveling. Contour mapping with Surfer-8.


Determination of seepage from earthen watercourses using various techniques, Study of lining materials, Cost estimation for brick lined rectangular and trapezoidal watercourse, visit of lined watercourses. Study of laser-controlled land leveling systems, leveling of a piece of land with laser leveler.

Books Recommended:

1. Training Manual for the training staff of On Farm Water Management staff, Directorate of on Farm Water Management Sindh, Hyderabad.
2. On Farm Water Management Field Manual Volume I & III. Water Management Wing, Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Cooperatives. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
3. Iqitdar H. Siddiqui. 1979. Irrigation Canals. National Book Foundation.


3. Ph. D.

LWM -717


The extent of water logging and Salinity in Pakistan present infrastructure to control waterlogging and salinity problem in Pakistan. Seepage from irrigation unlined and lined canals and rivers. Theories of water flow in the sub-soils. Management and Reclamation of waterlogged soils use of tube-wells for lowering of water table. Size and spacing of tube-wells for lowering water table. Economics of Reclamation of water logged soils by tube-wells. Interface of fresh and saline water under the Indus plain. Skimming wells.

The quantity and quantity of salts in soil and irrigation water. Origin of saline and sodic soils. Concept of salt balance, leading requirement. Management and reclamation of slat affected soils. Irrigation water analysis, classification and interpretation of water analysis water quality criteria. Treatment to improve water quality. Gypsum requirements.

Under drainage Design: Drainage layouts, drainage gradient, design water table depth, drainage depth, drain spacing, traditional practices, and scientific design.

Modeling of water flow and solute transport in soil: Mathematical description of water flow and solute transport processes in the vadose zone. Use of HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D for simulation of one and two dimensional water flow and solute transport in the vadoze zone

Books recommended:

1. R. S. Ayers and D. W. Westcot. Water quality for Agriculture. FAO. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 Rev. 1
2. Hagan, R. M. and others. 1987. Irrigation of Agricultural Lands. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
3. D. A. Castle, J Mc Cunnall and I. M. 1984. Tring. Field Drainage. Batsfor Academic and Educational, London

LWM -718

Review of Fundamental Equations: Continuity equations, steady state flow, time variant flow, idealizations.

Finite Difference Formulations: Space discretization, time, explicit and implicit forms, boundary conditions, solution techniques, Boundary value problems.

Seepage Analysis: Steady seepage, confined, unconfined, field problems, time variant seepage.

Regional Ground Water Flow: Governing equations, data requirements and processing, one dimensional problems, multi-dimensional flow, case studies.

Numerical pumping test analysis: Derivation of model, standard problems, vertical flow components, delayed yield concepts.

Finite Elements Formulation: Introduction, Development of equations, applications.

Books Recommended:

1. Mahajan, G, 1995. Ground water survey and investigation. Ashish publishing House, New Dehli, India.
2. Chow, Ven Te., David R. Maidment, Lary W. Mays. 1994. Applied hydrology McGraw Hill International Edition.
3. Mutreja, K .N. 1992. Applied hydrology. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, India.
4. Johnson Division. 1975. Groundwater and Wells. A Reference Book. Johnson Division. Saint Paul, Minnesota. USA.


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