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Home-->Faculty of Agricultural Engineering-->Department of Land and Water Management-->Course Offered
wise subjects and credit hours for B.
||Surveying and Leveling
||Saline Sodic and
||Soil and water
wise subjects and credit hours for M.
||Soil Water Plant
Land and Water Management
wise subjects and credit hours for Ph.D
||Water logging and
T1. BE (AGRI)
Surveying History and
development of surveying and of the
instruments used, precision and accuracy,
Theory, construction and uses of chains,
steel bands, optical square, box sextant,
Principles, ranging and chaining
of survey lines, field Work and plotting
of chain survey.
Types of compasses, their construction,
Working and uses, bearings, local attraction,
compass traversing, traverse adjustment
Plane table surveying methods, two point
problem and three-point problem.
Leveling. Leveling, instruments,
their Working and uses, reduction of
levels, classification of leveling.
Methods of contouring, characteristics
of contour lines, uses of contour, interpolation
of contour, setting grade stakes, setting
out grades for sewers, plotting of contour
care and adjustment, reading horizontal
and vertical angles.
Areas and Volumes.
Areas and volumes of regular
and irregular figures, the mid ordinate,
average ordinate, Trapezoidal and Prismoidal`s
rules for areas and volumes, Borrow
pits, plan meter and its uses.
Surveying: Methods of tachemetrical
surveying, field work and computations.
Measurement of distance,
chaining on sloppy ground, chaining
through obstacles, use of equipment
for setting out right angles, study
and field use of prismatic and surveyors
compass, plane table transits.
Levels, alidade, theodolite and teachnometer,
field problems in witch these instruments
1. Brinker, A. C. and
W. C. Taylor. 1988. Elementary Surveying.
International Test Book Co., Scranton,
2. Ramsay, J. E. and Wilson.
1977 land Surveying. Macdonald and Evans
Ltd. Estover, Plymouth PL 6 7 PZ.
3. Jack, B. E. 1992. Surveying. John
Wiley and Sons, New York.
4. Clark, D. 1989 plane
and Geodetic Surveying for Engineers
Vol-1 Constable and Company Ltd. England.
5. Davis, R. E. and F. S Foote. 1983.
Surveying. Theory and practice. McGraw
Hill Book Company, inc, New York.
6. Ramsay, J .P. W. 1990.
Land Surveying. McDonald and Evans Ltd.
Estovers, Plymouth U. K
Surface irrigation Systems.
Types and characteristics of different
surface irrigation methods and systems
(border, basin, furrow), phases of surface
irrigation, effectiveness of surface
irrigation, introduction to design of
surface irrigation systems, surge irrigation
Water potential and moisture measurements,
estimation of irrigation, irrigation
scheduling, allowable depletion, irrigation
amount and frequency, irrigation efficiency,
irrigation water and crop yield interaction.
Advantages and disadvantages of sub-irrigation,
types of sub-irrigation, use of sub-irrigation
Systems: Types, advantages
and disadvantages, components of sprinkler
systems, design and layout of sprinkler
systems, control of microclimate by
System: Advantages and disadvantages,
problems associated with drip irrigation
systems, components, design and layout
of drip irrigation system.
irrigation Systems: Need for
irrigation evaluation parameters conveyance,
application and distribution efficiencies,
coefficient of uniformity, storage and
irrigation system efficiency, improvements
in irrigation systems effectiveness.
Design and layout of selected
irrigation systems. Field evaluation
of an irrigation system. Evaluation
of an irrigation system by using computer
1. Jensen, M. E.1981 Design
and Operation of Farm irrigation systems.
American Society of Agriculture Engineers
2. Walker, W.R.; and G. V. Skogerboe,
1987 Surface irrigation: Theory and
practices. Prentice Hall, inc, Englewood
Cliffs, New jersey, USA.
3. Merriam, J. L., 1988 irrigation system
Evaluation and improvement. Blake printing
& publ, Co., San luis Obispo, G.
4. Linsley, R. K., J. B. Franzini and
D. L Freyberg. 1992 Water Resources
Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York
definition and concept, factors to be
considered in irrigation scheduling,
types of irrigation scheduling, application
of irrigation scheduling. Soil and soil
water content, types of soil water,
soil and water characteristic curve,
Methods of determining crop water requirements.
Consumptive use, actual
evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration,
crop coefficients. Methods of determining
Frequency and Interval
of Irrigation, Factors affecting frequency
of irrigation, Design irrigation frequency,
depth of irrigation, factors affecting
depth of irrigation
Determining moisture contents
at field capacity and wilting points
by gravimetric method. Estimating reference
evapo-transpiration. Preparing an irrigation
schedule of a crop for the growing season.
Use of Computer model for calculation
of the water requirements for different
1. Dilip K. M. 2004. Irrigation
Water Management Principles and Practices.
Prentice Hall of India Pvt. New Delhi.
2. FAO 1977 Crop water requirements
(revised ed.) FAO irrigation and drainage
3. Rafique M. C. 2005. A text book of
irrigation and drainage practices for
agriculture. Study Aid Project. University
of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Introduction: Definition of soil and
its important for plant growth. Composition
and formation of soils. Soil classification
& Horizons. Soil colour and temperature.
properties: texture and structure,
water content, bulk density, particle
density, porosity, void ratio, saturation
Soil water Potential:
components of total potential, measurements
of potential components, capillary tube,
tensiometer, piezometer tube.
flow: Darcy’s law, measurement
of the saturated hydraulic conductivity
in the lab and field.
flow: retention curve and hydraulic
conductivity function, measurement of
retention curve, Richards equation,
infiltration, evaporation, non-equilibrium/preferential
parameters their measurements:
VGM parameters and analytical models
RETC, ROSETTA for measurement of hydraulic
parameters. Introduction of numerical
models (HYDRUS) for modeling of water
flow in soil.
Determination of soil texture, soil
structure, soil water content, soil
bulk density, soil particle density,
void ratio, porosity. Determination
of saturated and unsaturated soil hydraulic
conductivity. Determination of water
retention curve. Laboratory practices
with Hydrus-1D model.
1. Baver, L.D. 1956. Soil
Physics. John Wiley and Sons Inch.,
New York; Champman and hall, Limited,
2. Buckman, H.O. and Brady, N.C. 1961.
The Nature and Properties of Soils.
The macmillan and Co., New York.
3. Hillel, D. 1982. Introduction to
soil physics. Harcount Brace Javanoich,
Origin and nature of saline,
alkali and water-logged Soils; Colloidal
complex of Soil; Structure and properties
of silicate Clays; Exchangeable Bases
and Cation Exchange in soil; soil reaction;
solute movement of water in soil pH
value of Soil and its significance;
Study of salt affected soil: Their classification,
reclamation and management. Leaching
and leaching requirement. Quality of
irrigation water and its effect on Soil
properties; plant growth; Methods of
reclamation and management of saline
and water-logged Soils. Irrigation water
quality effects on soil environment.
Measurement of infiltration
rate of saline and water-logged Soils;
Movement of solutes: preparation of
Soil paste and Soil saturation extract.
Chemical analysis of pH, CEC, SAR, ESP,
and Cations and Anions. Quality of irrigation
water; Water table measurements.
1. Bresler, E, B. L. McNeal and D. L.
Carter. 1982 Saline and Sodic Soils,
2. Tanji, K.K. 1990. Agricultural salinity
assessment and management. ASCE No.
71, New York, USA.
3. Gupta, I. C. 1990. Use of saline
water in Agriculture. Oxford and IBH
pub. Co, New Delhi, India.
4. U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff. 1954.
Diagnosis and improvement of saline
and alkali soils. Handbook, No. 60 USDA.
US. Govt. print. Office Washington,
Introduction: land and
water resources of Pakistan, soil and
water management problems. Importance
of soil and water conservation soil
and water conservation practices in
Rainfall characteristics related
to erosion. Analysis of precipitation
data. Effective precipitation.
Definition, watershed characteristics.
Factors affecting infiltration and runoff,
importance of infiltration in soil and
Water Erosion and control
practices: Factors affecting erosion
by water, types of water erosion, mechanics
of erosion, forms of water erosion,
soil loss equation and its components,
soil loss estimation and erosion control
Wind Erosion and
Control practices: The mechanics
of detachment, transport and deposition
of soil or practical, estimation of
soil loss by wind erosion control practices.
Use, design and maintenance of vegetated
waterways. Terracing, functions, classifications,
design, location and maintenance of
Types, functional requirements
and limitations of conservation structures.
Farm ponds: Types, foundation
requirements and design of earth embankments,
water harvesting concepts, site selection
and design of farm ponds.
Measurements of infiltration
rate in field by infiltrometer. Measurements
of soil loss from splash erosion by
rainfall simulator. Measurements of
runoff and runoff coefficient of filed
plots. Measurements of soil loss under
different rainfall intensities. Demonstration
of moisture conservation techniques.
Field visit to soil and water conservation
1. Schwab, G. O., R. K.,
Fervert, T.W., Edminister, and K.K.,
Barens. 1993. Soil and Water Conservation
Engineering. John Wiley & Sons New
2. Frederic R. Troch. 1991 Soil and
water Conservation. Printice Hall, Englewood
Cliff. New jersey, USA.
3. Hundson, N. 1976. Soil Conservation.
BT Batsford Limited. Morga R.P.C. Linsely,
R.K. and F. Joseph. 1996 Water Resources
Engineering. McGraw Hill.
Soil Water plant Relationships:
Soil moisture characteristics filed
capacity, wilting point, total available
water, readily available water, infiltration
and hydraulic conductivity, irrigation
Crop Water Requirements:
potential evapo-transpiration, crop
coefficients, actual evapo-transpiration,
effective rainfall. Net irrigation requirements
, leaching requirements and gross irrigation
importance of land leveling in water
management, topographic survey, system
layout, optimizing cuts and fills, land
leveling equipment, laser land leveling.
Units of measurement, equipment and
methods of measurement, interpretation
of discharge data, water losses.
and Maintenance: Hydraulics
of open channel flow, flow profiles,
design of watercourse for a command,
watercourse structures, cleaning and
maintenance of watercourses.
construction requirements and procedure,
material for construction equipment
and methods, cost of watercourse lining
Determination of seepage
losses. Dead Storage losses. Determination
of field capacity, available water and
wilting point. Design and cost estimation
of a watercourse for a given command
area. Field visit of lined and earthen
water courses. Land leveling and preparation
of a contour map.
4. FAO 1977 Crop water
requirements (revised ed.) FAO irrigation
and drainage paper 24.
5. On Farm Water Management Field Manuals,
6. Jensen, M. E, 1981, Design and Operation
of Farm irrigation System. ASAE, Monograph,
M. E. Courses:
Soil water constants and
their determinations, soil water movement:
Hydraulic head and fluid potential,
saturated and unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity, heterogeneity and anisotropy
of hydraulic conductivity, unsaturated
flow and water table, steady state and
transient flow Soil water interactions
in relation to root and shoot growth.
Soil water interaction in relation to
soil properties, environmental considerations,
water availability to plants, soil water
uptake by plants. Nutrient uptake: mass
flow, diffusion, root effects. Moisture
extraction by root systems and the concurrent
movement of water and salt in the soil
profile. Upward flow in the presence
of water table.
(SPA) system: equation of mass
balance and flow equations in one and
two dimensions, empirical equations.
Practical application of soil/plant/water
principles in agronomy and field engineering.
Properties and Plant Growth:
soil compaction, mechanical and hydraulic
properties of compacted soil, influence
of compacted Zone to upward flux, infiltration
and root penetration. Tillage of compacted
soil and plant growth.
1. Irrigation of Agricultural
Crops. Editors B.A. Stewart and R. Nielsen.
1990. SSSA, CSSA and ASA.
2. Crop Water Requirements, Irrigation
and Drainage paper 24, FAO: Rome, Italy.
Basic Management Concept.
Scope and objectives of watercourse
improvement, advantages of lining, Types
of lining, estimated benefits of watercourse
lining. Seepage, factors affecting seepage,
methods of determining seepage rate
from earthen canals/watercourses
Design procedure for watercourse
lining, survey of earthen watercourse,
hydraulics used in watercourse design,
Design criteria, Material and cost estimation,
watercourse control structures, construction,
operation, cleaning and maintenance
Importance of land preparations,
Benefits of land leveling, Economics
of land leveling, Options for land leveling.
Small-scale land leveling, Traditional
engineering approach, precision land
leveling, Laser land leveling, Laser-controlled
land leveling systems Benefits of laser
leveling. Contour mapping with Surfer-8.
Determination of seepage
from earthen watercourses using various
techniques, Study of lining materials,
Cost estimation for brick lined rectangular
and trapezoidal watercourse, visit of
lined watercourses. Study of laser-controlled
land leveling systems, leveling of a
piece of land with laser leveler.
1. Training Manual for
the training staff of On Farm Water
Management staff, Directorate of on
Farm Water Management Sindh, Hyderabad.
2. On Farm Water Management Field Manual
Volume I & III. Water Management
Wing, Ministry of Food, Agriculture
& Cooperatives. Government of Pakistan,
3. Iqitdar H. Siddiqui. 1979. Irrigation
Canals. National Book Foundation.
The extent of water logging
and Salinity in Pakistan present infrastructure
to control waterlogging and salinity
problem in Pakistan. Seepage from irrigation
unlined and lined canals and rivers.
Theories of water flow in the sub-soils.
Management and Reclamation of waterlogged
soils use of tube-wells for lowering
of water table. Size and spacing of
tube-wells for lowering water table.
Economics of Reclamation of water logged
soils by tube-wells. Interface of fresh
and saline water under the Indus plain.
The quantity and quantity
of salts in soil and irrigation water.
Origin of saline and sodic soils. Concept
of salt balance, leading requirement.
Management and reclamation of slat affected
soils. Irrigation water analysis, classification
and interpretation of water analysis
water quality criteria. Treatment to
improve water quality. Gypsum requirements.
Design: Drainage layouts, drainage
gradient, design water table depth,
drainage depth, drain spacing, traditional
practices, and scientific design.
Modeling of water flow
and solute transport in soil: Mathematical
description of water flow and solute
transport processes in the vadose zone.
Use of HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D for simulation
of one and two dimensional water flow
and solute transport in the vadoze zone
1. R. S. Ayers and D.
W. Westcot. Water quality for Agriculture.
FAO. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29
2. Hagan, R. M. and others. 1987. Irrigation
of Agricultural Lands. American Society
of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
3. D. A. Castle, J Mc Cunnall and I.
M. 1984. Tring. Field Drainage. Batsfor
Academic and Educational, London
Review of Fundamental
Equations: Continuity equations, steady
state flow, time variant flow, idealizations.
Formulations: Space discretization,
time, explicit and implicit forms, boundary
conditions, solution techniques, Boundary
Steady seepage, confined, unconfined,
field problems, time variant seepage.
Regional Ground Water
Flow: Governing equations, data requirements
and processing, one dimensional problems,
multi-dimensional flow, case studies.
test analysis: Derivation of
model, standard problems, vertical flow
components, delayed yield concepts.
Development of equations, applications.
1. Mahajan, G, 1995. Ground
water survey and investigation. Ashish
publishing House, New Dehli, India.
2. Chow, Ven Te., David R. Maidment,
Lary W. Mays. 1994. Applied hydrology
McGraw Hill International Edition.
3. Mutreja, K .N. 1992. Applied hydrology.
Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Company
Limited, New Delhi, India.
4. Johnson Division. 1975. Groundwater
and Wells. A Reference Book. Johnson
Division. Saint Paul, Minnesota. USA.